Reference Library

Seed represents the culmination of several decades of research and study in microbiome science. Our Reference Library serves as a resource for further reading in bacteria, human health, and the science behind our products.

In the beginning, there was bacteria.

Our single-celled ancestors and the birth of complex life on Earth

Zhou Z, Liu Y, Li M, et al. “Two or three domains: a new view of tree of life in the genomics era.” Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 102: 3049, 2018. Accessed 2018 May 28. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00253-018-8831-x. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-8831-x

Eme L, Spang A, Lombard J, Stairs C W, Ettema T J G. “Archaea and the origin of eukaryotes.” Nature Reviews Microbiology, volume 15, pages 711–723, 2017 November 10. Accessed 2018 May 28. https://www.nature.com/articles/nrmicro.2017.133. DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro.2017.133

You are 50% human. Meet your other half.

Seeding: where your microbiome came from

Koleva, P T. et al. “Microbial programming of health and disease starts during fetal life.” Birth Defects Research Part C Embryo Today, 105(4):265-77, 2015 Dec. Web 2015 Dec 10. Accessed 2018 April 28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26663884 DOI:10.1002/bdrc.21117

Makino H, Kushiro A, Ishikawa E, Kubota H, Gawad A, Sakai T, Oishi K, Martin R, Ben-Amor K, Knol J, Tanaka R. “Mother-to-infant transmission of intestinal Bifidobacterial strains has an impact on the early development of vaginally delivered infant’s microbiota.” PLoS One, 8(11):e78331, 2013 Nov 14. Web 2013. Accessed 2018 April 28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24244304/ DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078331

Arboleya S, Binetti A, Salazar N, Fernández N, Solís G, Hernández-Barranco A, Margolles A, de los Reyes-Gavilán C G, Gueimonde M. “Establishment and development of intestinal microbiota in preterm neonates.” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, Volume 79, Issue 3, 1 Pages 763–772, 2012 March. Accessed 2018 May 17. http://refhub.elsevier.com/B978-0-12-810541-2.00003-8/rf0025. DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2011.01261.x

Chu D M, Antony K M, Ma J, Prince A L, Showalter L, Moller M, Aagaard K M. “The early infant gut microbiome varies in association with a maternal high-fat diet.” Genome Medicine 8:77, 2016. Accessed 2018 May 17. https://genomemedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13073-016-0330-z. DOI: 10.1186/s13073-016-0330-z

Risnes K R, Belanger K, Murk W, Bracken M B. “Antibiotic exposure by 6 months and asthma and allergy at 6 years: findings in a cohort of 1,401 US children.” American Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 173, Issue 3, Pages 310–318, 2011 Feb 1. Accessed 2018 May 17. https://academic.oup.com/aje/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/aje/kwq400. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwq400

Stiemsma L T, Michels K B. “The role of the microbiome in the developmental origins of health and disease.” American Academy of Pediatrics. Volume 141, Issue 4, 2018 April. Accessed 2018 May 17. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/141/4/e20172437.long

Breastmilk and the microbiome

Yamada C, Gotoh A, Sakanaka M, Hattie M, Stubbs K A, Katayama-Ikegami A, Hirose J, Kurihara S, Arakawa T, Kitaoka M, Okuda S, Katayama T, Katayama T, Fushinobu S. “Molecular insight into evolution of symbiosis between breast-fed infants and a member of the human gut microbiome Bifidobacterium longum.” Cell Chemical Biology, Volume 24, Issue 4, p515–524.e5, 2017 April 20. Accessed 2018 May 31. https://www.cell.com/cell-chemical-biology/fulltext/S2451-9456(17)30095-8 https://www.cell.com/cell-chemical-biology/fulltext/S2451-9456(17)30095-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2017.03.012

Martin C R, Ling P, Blackburn G L. “Review of infant feeding: key features of breast milk and infant formula.” Nutrients 8(5): 279, 2016 May. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4882692/. DOI: 10.3390/nu8050279

Harmsen H J M, Wildeboer–Veloo A C M, Raangs Gerwin C, Wagendorp A A, Klijn N, Bindels J G, Welling G W. “Analysis of intestinal flora development in breast-fed and formula-fed infants by using molecular identification and detection methods.” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 30(1):61-67, 2000 Jan. Accessed 2018 June 1.https://insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=10630441.

Fallani, M. et al. “Determinants of the human infant intestinal microbiota after the introduction of first complementary foods in infant samples from five European centres.”Microbiology 157, 1385–1392,2011 May 1. http://mic.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.042143-0.DOI: 10.1099/mic.0.042143-0

50% human, 50% microbial

Sender R, Fuchs S, Milo R. “Revised estimates for the number of human and bacteria cells in the body.” PLoS Biology, 14(8):e1002533, 2016 Aug 19. Web 2016 Aug. Accessed 2018 April 28.http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1002533. DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002533

Beyond your gut: the ecosystems of your body

Dréno B, Araviiskaia E, Berardesca E, Gontijo G, Sanchez Viera M, Xiang L F, Martin R, Bieber T. “Microbiome in healthy skin, update for dermatologists.” J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 30(12):2038-2047. 2016 Dec. Web 2016 Oct 13. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jdv.13965. DOI: 10.1111/jdv.13965

Abdallah F, Mijouin L, Pichon C. “Skin immune landscape: inside and outside the organism.” Mediators Inflamm. 5095293, 2017. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5664322/. DOI: 10.1155/2017/5095293

Prescott S L, Larcombe D , Logan A C, West C, W , Caraballo L, Levin M, Van Etten E, Horwitz P, Kozyrskyj A, Campbell D E. “The skin microbiome: impact of modern environments on skin ecology, barrier integrity, and systemic immune programming.” World Allergy Organization Journal 10:29. 2017 Aug 22. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://waojournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40413-017-0160-5. DOI: 10.1186/s40413-017-0160-5

Meadow J F​, Bateman A C, Herkert K M, O’Connor T K, Green J L. “Significant changes in the skin microbiome mediated by the sport of roller derby.” PeerJ 1:e53, 2013 March 12. Accessed 2018 May 31. https://peerj.com/articles/53/. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.53

Urbaniak C, Cummins J, Brackstone M, Macklaim J M, Gloor G B, Baban C K, Scott L, O’Hanlon D M, Burton J P, Francis K P, Tangney M, Reid G. “Microbiota of human breast tissue.” Appl Environ Microbiol. 80(10): 3007–3014, 2014 May. Accessed 2018 May 30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4018903/. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00242-14

Aragón I M, Herrera-Imbroda B, Queipo-Ortuño M I, Castillo E, Del Moral J S, Gómez-Millán J, Yucel G, Lara M F . “The urinary tract microbiome in health and disease.” Eur Urol Focus. pii: S2405-4569(16)30159-6, 2016 Nov 14. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28753805. DOI: 10.1016/j.euf.2016.11.001

Hiergeist A, Gessner A. “Clinical implications of the microbiome in urinary tract diseases.” Current Opinion in Urology. 27(2):93–98. 2017 March 1. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=27898455. DOI: 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000367

Schneeweiss J, Koch M, Umek, W. “Human urinary microbiome and how it relates to urogynecology.” International Urogynecology Journal, Volume 27, Issue 9, pp 1307–1312, 2016 Sep. Web 2016 Jan 25. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00192-016-2944-5. DOI: 10.1007/s00192-016-2944-5

Vicariotto F, Mogna L, Del Piano M. “Effectiveness of the two microorganisms Lactobacillus fermentum LF15 and Lactobacillus plantarum LP01, formulated in slow-release vaginal tablets, in women affected by bacterial vaginosis: a pilot study.” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 48 Suppl 1:S106-12, 2014 Nov-Dec. Accessed 2018 April 28 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25291116 DOI:10.1097/MCG.0000000000000226

Zhou X, Hansmann M A, Davis CC, Suzuki H, Brown C J, Schütte U, Pierson J D, Forney L J. “The vaginal bacterial communities of Japanese women resemble those of women in other racial groups.” FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 58(2):169-81, 2010 March. Accessed 2018 May 28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19912342. DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2009.00618.x

Macklaim J M, Clemente J C, Knight R, Gloor G B, Reid G. “Changes in vaginal microbiota following antimicrobial and probiotic therapy.” Microb Ecol Health Dis. v.26, 2015. Accessed 2018 May 30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4539393/. DOI: 10.3402/mehd.v26.27799

Watson E, Reid G. “Metabolomics as a clinical testing method for the diagnosis of vaginal dysbiosis.” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, e12979, 2018 May 14. Accessed 2018 May 30. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/aji.12979. DOI: 10.1111/aji.12979

Bisanz J E, Seney S, McMillan A, Vongsa R, Koenig D, Wong L, Dvoracek B, Gloor G B, Sumarah M, Ford B, Herman D, Burton J P, Reid G. “A systems biology approach investigating the effect of probiotics on the vaginal microbiome and host responses in a double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of post-menopausal women.” Accessed 2018 May 30. PLoS One.9(8):e104511, 2014 Aug 15. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0104511. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104511

McMillan A, Rulisa S, Sumarah M W, Macklaim J M, Renaud J, Bisanz J, Gloor G B, Gregor R. “A multi-platform metabolomics approach identifies highly specific biomarkers of bacterial diversity in the vagina of pregnant and non-pregnant women.” Scientific Reports, 5. 14174, 2015. Accessed 2018 May 30. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282048895. DOI: 10.1038/srep14174.

Reid G. “Has knowledge of the vaginal microbiome altered approaches to health and disease?” F1000Res; 7:460. 2018 Apr 13. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5904725/. DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.13706.1

Lewis F M T, Bernstein K T, Aral S O. “Vaginal microbiome and its relationship to behavior, sexual health, and sexually transmitted diseases.” Obstet Gynecol. 129(4):643–654, 2017 April. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=28277350. DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001932

Green K A, Zarek S M, Catherino W H. “Gynecologic health and disease in relation to the microbiome of the female reproductive tract.” Fertility and Sterility, volume 104, issue 6, pages 1351–1357, 2015 Dec. Accessed 2018 June 1.
https://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(15)02017-8/fulltext. DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.10.010

Doerflinger S Y, Throop A L, Herbst-Kralovetz M M. “Bacteria in the vaginal microbiome alter the innate immune response and barrier properties of the human vaginal epithelia in a species-specific manner.” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 209, Issue 12, Pages 1989–1999, 2014 June 15. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/209/12/1989/798398. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiu004

How the microbiome impacts human health

Sommer F, Bäckhed F. “The Gut Microbiota–Masters of Host Development and Physiology.” Nature Reviews Microbiology 11, 227–238 2013 Apr. 11. Web. 2013 Feb 25. Accessed 2018 April 28 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23435359. DOI:10.1038/nrmicro2974

Microbial richness and diversity in the body as hallmarks of health

Loceya K J, Lennona J T. “Scaling laws predict global microbial diversity.” National Academy of Sciences 2016 May 24. Web 2016 May 2. Accessed 2018 May 14. http://www.pnas.org/content/113/21/5970. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1521291113

Colwell R. “Microbial diversity: the importance of exploration and conservation.” Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology
Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 302–307 1997 May. Accessed 2018 May 18. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1038/sj.jim.2900390. DOI: 10.1038/sj.jim.2900390

Human Microbiome Project Consortium 2012. “Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome.” Nature 486:207–214, 2012 June 14. Web 2012 June 13. Accessed 2018 May 15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3564958/. DOI:10.1038/nature11234

Lozupone C A, Stombaugh J I, Gordon J I , Jansson J K, Knight R. “Diversity, stability and resilience of the human gut microbiota.” Nature 489:220–230 2012 Sep. 13. Web 2012 Sep 12. Accessed 2018 May 15. http://www.nature.com/articles/nature11550. DOI:10.1038/nature115

Eckburg P B, Bik E M, Bernstein C N, Purdom E, Sargent M, Gill S R, et al. “Diversity of the human intestinal microbial flora.” Sci. Rep. 308, 1635–1638 2005 June 10. Web 2006 Mar 9. Accessed 2018 May 15.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1395357/. DOI: 10.1126/science.1110591

Segata, Nicola. “Gut microbiome: westernization and the disappearance of intestinal diversity.” Current Biology volume 25, issue 14, pR611–R613 2015 July 20. Accessed 2018 May 15. https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(15)00614-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2015.05.040

The climate change of our health is real.

How antibiotics can impair your microbiome

Langdon Am, Crook N, Danta G. “The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation.” Genome Medicine 2016 8:39. Web 2016 Apr 13. Accessed 2018 April 28 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4831151/ DOI:10.1186/s13073-016-0294-z

Dethlefsen L, Relman D A. “Incomplete recovery and individualized responses of the human distal gut microbiota to repeated antibiotic perturbation.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 108(Suppl 1): 4554–4561, 2011 Mar 15. Web 2010 Sep 16. Accessed 2018 April 28 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3063582/ DOI:10.1073/pnas.1000087107

Lange K, Buerger M, Stallmach A, Bruns T. “Effects of antibiotics on gut microbiota.” Dig Dis.34(3):260-8, 2016. Web 2016 Mar 30. Accessed 2018 April 28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27028893 DOI: 10.1159/000443360

De La Cochetière M F, Durand T, Lepage P, Bourreille A, Galmiche J P, Doré J. “Resilience of the dominant human fecal microbiota upon short-course antibiotic challenge.” Clin Microbiol. 43(11): 5588–5592 2005 Nov. Accessed 2018 May 15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1287787/. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.43.11.5588-5592.2005

Jernberg C, Löfmark S, Edlund C, Jansson J K. “Long-term ecological impacts of antibiotic administration on the human intestinal microbiota.” The ISME Journal Volume 1: 56–66 2007 May. Accessed 2018 May 15. http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/ismej.2007.3. DOI: 10.1038/ismej.2007.3

Hartmut Lode, N. von der Höh, S. Ziege, K. Borner, Carl Erik Nord. “Ecological effects of Linezolid versus Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid on the normal intestinal microflora.” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 33:12, Pages 899-903, 2001. Accessed 2018 May 15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11868762

Reid G, Bruce AW, Cook RL, Llano M. “Effect on urogenital flora of antibiotic therapy for urinary tract infection.” Scand J Infect Dis. 22(1):43-7,1990. Accessed 2018 May 28.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2181630

Blaser M J. “Antibiotic use and its consequences for the normal microbiome.” Science. 352(6285):544-5, 2016 Apr 29. Accessed 2018 May 28. DOI: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4939477/. DOI: 10.1126/science.aad9358

Sleep and its affect on your microbes

Benedict C, Vogel H, Jonas W, Woting A, Blaut M, Schürmann A, Cedernaes J. “Gut microbiota and glucometabolic alterations in response to recurrent partial sleep deprivation in normal-weight young individuals.” Molecular Metabolism, Volume 5, Issue 12, Pages 1175-1186, 2016. Accessed 2018 May 28. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2212877816301934. DOI: 10.1016/j.molmet.2016.10.003

Reynolds A C, Paterson J L, Ferguson S A, Stanley D, Wright Jr K P , Dawson D. “The shift work and health research agenda: considering changes in gut microbiota as a pathway linking shift work, sleep loss and circadian misalignment, and metabolic disease.” Sleep Medicine Reviews Volume 34, Pages 3–9, 2017 August. Accessed 2018 May 28. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1087-0792(16)30061-2. DOI: 10.1016/j.smrv.2016.06.009

Decreased breastfeeding and its impact on a baby's developing microbiome

Harmsen H J M, Wildeboer–Veloo A C M, Raangs G C, Wagendorp A A, Klijn N, Bindels J G, Gjalt G W. “Analysis of intestinal flora development in breast-fed and formula-fed infants by using molecular identification and detection methods.” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 30(1):61-67, 2000 Jan 1. Accessed 2018 May 15. https://journals.lww.com/jpgn/Fulltext/2000/01000/Analysis_of_Intestinal_Flora_Development_in.19.aspx

Martin R, Makino H, Yavuz A C, Ben-Amor K, Roelofs M, Ishikawa E, Kubota H, Swinkels S, Sakai T, Oishi K, Kushiro A, Knol J. “Early-life events, including mode of delivery and type of feeding, siblings and gender, shape the developing gut microbiota.” PLoS ONE 11(6): e0158498, 2016 June 30. Accessed 2018 May 15. http://refhub.elsevier.com/B978-0-12-810541-2.00003-8/rf0185. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158498

Milani C, Duranti S, Bottacini F, Casey E, Turroni F, Mahony J, Belzer C, Delgado Palacio S, Arboleya Montes S, Mancabelli L, Lugli GA, Rodriguez JM, Bode L, de Vos W, Gueimonde M, Margolles A, van Sinderen D, Ventura M. “The first microbial colonizers of the human gut: composition, activities, and health implications of the infant gut microbiota.” Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 81(4) pii: e00036-17, 2017 Nov 8. Accessed 2018 May 28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29118049. DOI: 10.1128/MMBR.00036-17

Penders J, Thijs C, Vink C, Stelma FF, Snijders B, Kummeling I, van den Brandt PA, Stobberingh EE. “Factors influencing the composition of the intestinal microbiota in early infancy.” Pediatrics 118(2):511-21, 2006 Aug. Accessed 2018 May 28. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/118/2/511

Vaginal or caesarean birth: how delivery mode can shape an infant's microbial foundation

Dominguez-Bello M G, Costello E K, Contreras M, Magris M, Hidalgo G, Fierer N, Knight R. “Delivery mode shapes the acquisition and structure of the initial microbiota across multiple body habitats in newborns.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107(26): 11971–11975 2010 Jun 29. Web 2010 Jun 21. Accessed 2018 May 15. http://www.pnas.org/content/107/26/11971. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1002601107

Blustein J, Attina T, Liu M, Ryan A M, Cox L M, Blaser M J, Trasande L. “Association of caesarean delivery with child adiposity from age 6 weeks to 15 years.” International Journal of Obesity Volume 37, Pages 900–906, 2013 April 8. Accessed 2018 May 15. http://www.nature.com/articles/ijo201349. DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2013.49

Renz‐Polster H, David M R, Buist A S, Vollmer W M, O’Connor E A, Frazier E A, Wall M A. “Caesarean section delivery and the risk of allergic disorders in childhood.” Clin Exp Allergy 35(11):1466-72 2005 Nov. 9. Accessed 2018 May 15. http://refhub.elsevier.com/B978-0-12-810541-2.00003-8/rf0225. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2005.02356.x

C Roduit, S Scholtens, J C de Jongste, A H Wijga, J Gerritsen, D S Postma, B Brunekreef, M O Hoekstra, R Aalberse, H A Smit. “Asthma at 8 years of age in children born by caesarean section.” Thorax 64:107-113 2009. Accessed 2018 May 15. http://thorax.bmj.com/content/64/2/107

Eating for our microbes.

How diet and nutrition impact your microbiome

Rasnik K. Singh, Hsin-Wen Chang, Di Yan, Kristina M. Lee, Derya Ucmak, Kirsten Wong, Michael Abrouk, Benjamin Farahnik, Mio Nakamura, Tian Hao Zhu, Tina Bhutani, Wilson Liao. “Influence of diet on the gut microbiome and implications for human health.” J Transl Med. 15: 73, 2017. Web 2017 Apr 8. Accessed 2018 May 15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5385025/. DOI: 10.1186/s12967-017-1175-y

Hans K. Biesalski. “Nutrition meets the microbiome: micronutrients and the microbiota.” Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1372(1):53-64, 2016 May. Accessed 2018 May 15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27362360. DOI: doi: 10.1111/nyas.13145

David L A, Maurice C F, Carmody R N, Gootenberg D B, Button J E, Wolfe B E, Ling A V, Devlin A S, Varma Y, Fischbach M A, Biddinger S B, Dutton R J, Turnbaugh P J. “Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome.” Nature volume 505, pages 559–563, 2014 Jan 23. Accessed 2018 May 17. https://www.nature.com/articles/nature12820. DOI: 10.1038/nature12820

Maier T V, Lucio M, Lee L H, VerBerkmoes N C, Brislawn C J, Bernhardt J, Lamendella R, McDermott J E, Bergeron N, Heinzmann S S, Morton J T, González A, Ackermann G, Knight R, Riedel K, Krauss R M, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Jansson J K. “Impact of dietary resistant starch on the human gut microbiome, metaproteome, and metabolome.” mBio vol. 8 no. 5 e01343-17, 2017 October 17. Accessed 2018 May 17. http://mbio.asm.org/content/8/5/e01343-17.full. DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01343-17

Albenberg L G, Wu G D. “Diet and the intestinal microbiome: associations, functions, and implications for health and disease.” Gastroenterology 146(6):1564-72, 2014 May. Web 2014 Feb 4. Accessed 2018 May 17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24503132. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2014.01.058

Cotillard A, Kennedy S P, Kong L C, Prifti E, Pons N, Le Chatelier E, Almeida M, Quinquis B, Levenez F, Galleron N, Gougis S, Rizkalla S, Batto J M, Renault P, ANR MicroObes consortium, Doré J, Zucker J D, Clément K, Ehrlich S D. “Dietary intervention impact on gut microbial gene richness.” Nature volume 500, pages 585–588, 2013 Aug 29. Accessed 2018 May 17.
https://www.nature.com/articles/nature12480. DOI: 10.1038/nature12480

De Filippo C, Cavalieri D, Di Paola M, Ramazzotti M, Poullet J B, Massart S, Collini S, Pieraccini G, Lionetti P. “Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa.” PNAS 107 (33) 14691-14696, 2010 August 17. Accessed 2018 May 17. http://www.pnas.org/content/107/33/14691. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1005963107

Falony G, Joossens M, Vieira-Silva S, Wang J, Darzi Y, Faust K, Kurilshikov A, Bonder M J, Valles-Colomer M, Vandeputte D, Tito R Y, Chaffron S, Rymenans L, Verspecht C, De Sutter L, Lima-Mendez G, D’hoe K, Jonckheere K, Homola D, Garcia R, Tigchelaar E F, Eeckhaudt L, Fu J, Henckaerts L, Zhernakova A, Wijmenga C, Raes. J. “Population-level analysis of gut microbiome variation.” Science Vol. 352, Issue 6285, pp. 560-564, 2016 April 29. Accessed 2018 May 17. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/352/6285/560. DOI: 10.1126/science.aad3503

Huang E Y, Devkota S, Moscoso D, Chang E B, Leone V A. “The role of diet in triggering human inflammatory disorders in the modern age.” Microbes and Infection Volume 15, Issue 12, Pages 765-774, 2013 November. Accessed 2018 May 17. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1286457913001469. DOI: 10.1016/j.micinf.2013.07.004

Smits S A, Leach J, Sonnenburg E D, Gonzalez C G, Lichtman J S, Reid G, Knight R, Manjurano A, Changalucha J, Elias J E, Dominguez-Bello M G, Sonnenburg J L. “Seasonal cycling in the gut microbiome of the Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania.” Science. 357(6353):802-806, 2017 Aug 25. Accessed 2018 May 28. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/357/6353/802. DOI: 10.1126/science.aan4834

How sugar and artificial sweeteners feed 'bad' bacteria

Suez J, Korem T, Zeevi D, Zilberman-Schapira G, Thaiss CA, Maza O, Israeli D, Zmora N, Gilad S, Weinberger A, Kuperman Y, Harmelin A, Kolodkin-Gal I, Shapiro H, Halpern Z, Segal E, Elinav E. “Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.” Nature, 514(7521):181-6, 2014 Oct 9. Web 2014 Sep 17. Accessed 2018 April 28 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25231862 DOI:10.1038/nature13793

What emulsifiers do to your microbiome

Chassaing B, Koren O, Goodrich J, Poole A, Srinivasan S, Ley R E, Gewirtz A T. “Dietary emulsifiers impact the mouse gut microbiota promoting colitis and metabolic syndrome.” Nature 519(7541): 92–96, 2015 Mar 5. Accessed 2018 May 17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4910713/. DOI: 10.1038/nature14232

Glade M J, Meguid M M. “A glance at … dietary emulsifiers, the human intestinal mucus and microbiome, and dietary fiber.” Nutrition Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 609–614, 2016 May. Accessed 2018 May 17. https://www.nutritionjrnl.com/article/S0899-9007(15)00533-X/fulltext. DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2015.12.036

Cani P D. “Metabolism: dietary emulsifiers—sweepers of the gut lining?” Nature Reviews Endocrinology 11, 319–320, 2015. Accessed 2018 May 28. https://www.nature.com/articles/nrendo.2015.59. DOI: 10.1038/nrendo.2015.59

The benefits of fiber

Slavin J. “Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits.” Nutrients. 5(4): 1417–1435, 2013 April. Accessed 2018 May 17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3705355/. DOI: 10.3390/nu5041417

Sonnenburg E D, Sonnenburg J L. “Starving our microbial self: The deleterious consequences of a diet deficient in microbiota-accessible carbohydrates.” Cell Metabolism Volume 20, Issue 5, p 779–786, 2014 Nov. 4. Accessed 2018 May 17. https://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/fulltext/S1550-4131(14)00311-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.07.003

So D, Whelan K,Rossi M, Morrison M, Holtmann G, Kelly J T, Shanahan E R, Staudacher H M, Campbell K L. “Dietary fiber intervention on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 107(6):965-983. 2018 June 1. Accessed 2018 May 28. https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/ajcn/nqy041/4994271. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy041

What bacteria do for us.

Production of key metabolites

Dorrestein P C, Mazmanian S K, Knight R. “Finding the missing links among metabolites, microbes, and the host.” Immunity Volume 40, Issue 6, p824–832, 2014 June 19. Accessed 2018 May 17. https://www.cell.com/immunity/fulltext/S1074-7613(14)00195-2. DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2014.05.015

Gerhauser C. “Impact of dietary gut microbial metabolites on the epigenome.” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 373: 20170359. 2018 April 23. Accessed 2018 May 17. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/373/1748/20170359. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2017.0359

Production of short-chain fatty acids

Louis P, Flint H J. “Formation of propionate and butyrate by the human colonic microbiota.” Environ Microbiol. 19(1):29-41, 2017 Jan. Web 2016 Dec 8. Accessed 2018 May 17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27928878. DOI: 10.1111/1462-2920.13589.

Corrêa-Oliveira R, Fachi J L, Vieira A, Sato F T, Vinolo M A R. “Regulation of immune cell function by short-chain fatty acids.” Clin Transl Immunology; Translational Immunology 5, e73, 2016. Web 2016 April 22. Accessed 2018 May 17. www.nature.com/cti/journal/v5/n4/full/cti201617a.html. DOI: 10.1038/cti.2016.17

Synthesis of vitamins B and K

LeBlanc J G, Laiño J E, Juarez del Valle M, Vannini V, van Sinderen D. Taranto M P, Font de Valdez G, Savoy de Giori G, Sesma F. “B‐Group vitamin production by lactic acid bacteria–current knowledge and potential applications.” Journal of Applied Microbiology Volume 111, Issue 6, Pages 1297-1309, 2011 December. Web 2011 Sep 20. Accessed 2018 May 28. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2011.05157.x. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2011.05157.x

LeBlanc J G, Milani C, Savoy de Giori G, Sesma F, van Sinderen D, Ventura M. “Bacteria as vitamin suppliers to their host: a gut microbiota perspective.” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, Volume 24, Issue 2, Pages 160-168, 2013. Accessed 2018 May 28. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S095816691200119X. DOI: 10.1016/j.copbio.2012.08.005

Production of neurotransmitters

Yano J M, Yu K, Donaldson G P, Shastri G G, Ann P, Ma L, Nagler C R, Ismagilov R F, Mazmanian S K, Hsiao E Y. “Indigenous bacteria from the gut microbiota regulate host serotonin biosynthesis.” Cell. 161(2): 264–276, 2015 Apr 9; Accessed 2018 May 17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4393509/. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.02.047

Digestion

Aziz Q, Doré J, Emmanuel A, Guarner F, Quigley E M M. “Gut microbiota and gastrointestinal health: current concepts and future directions.” Neurogastroenterol Motil 25, 4–15, 2013 Jan 1. Accessed 2018 June 1.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/nmo.12046. DOI: 10.1111/nmo.12046

Rowland I, Gibson G, Heinken A, Scott K, SwannInes J, Tuohy T. “Gut microbiota functions: metabolism of nutrients and other food components.” European Journal of Nutrition, 57(1):1-24, 2018 Feb. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00394-017-1445-8. DOI: 10.1007/s00394-017-1445-8

Gut barrier

Suzuki, T. “Regulation of intestinal epithelial permeability by tight junctions.” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, Volume 70, Issue 4, pp 631–659, 2013 Feb. Web 2012 Jul 11. Accessed 2018 June 1.https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00018-012-1070-x. DOI: 10.1007/s00018-012-1070-x

Hu M D, Jia L, Edelblum K L. “Policing the intestinal epithelial barrier: Innate immune functions of intraepithelial lymphocytes.” Curr Pathobiol Rep. 6(1):35-46. 2018 March. Web 2018 Jan 15. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29755893

Immunity

Webb C R, Koboziev I,Furr K L, Grisham M B. “Protective and pro-inflammatory roles of intestinal bacteria.” Pathophysiology, 23(2): 67–80, 2016 June. Web 2016 Feb 17. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4867289/. DOI: 10.1016/j.pathophys.2016.02.002

Tlaskalová-Hogenová H, Stepánková R, Hudcovic T, Tucková L, Cukrowska B, Lodinová-Zádníková R, Kozáková H, Rossmann P, Bártová J, Sokol D, Funda DP, Borovská D, Reháková Z, Sinkora J, Hofman J, Drastich P, Kokesová A. “Commensal bacteria (normal microflora), mucosal immunity and chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.” Immunology Letters, Volume 93, Issues 2–3, Pages 97-108, 2004 May 15. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0165247804000379

Allaire J M, Crowley S M, Law H T, Chang S Y, Ko H J, Vallance B A. “The intestinal epithelium: central coordinator of mucosal immunity.” Trends Immunol. pii: S1471-4906(18)30068-1, 2018 Apr 28. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://www.cell.com/trends/immunology/fulltext/S1471-4906(18)30068-1. DOI: 10.1016/j.it.2018.04.002

Metabolic health

Kasińska M A, Drzewoski J. “Effectiveness of probiotics in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis.” Pol Arch Med Wewn, 125 (11): 803 813, 2015 Oct 2. Accessed 2018 May 17. http://pamw.pl/en/issue/article/26431318, DOI: 10.20452/pamw.3156

Liou A P, Paziuk M, Luevano J M, Machineni S, Turnbaugh P J, Kaplan L M. “Conserved shifts in the gut microbiota due to gastric bypass reduce host weight and adiposity.” Sci Transl Med, 5(178): 178ra41, 2013 Mar 27. Accessed 2018 May 17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3652229/. DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3005687

The science of probiotics.

What probiotics are and how they work

Reid G. “Probiotics: definition, scope and mechanisms of action.” Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 17-25, 2016 Feb. Web 2015 Dec 19. Accessed 2018 May 30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27048893. DOI: 10.1016/j.bpg.2015.12.001

Bermudez-Brito M, Plaza-Díaz J, Muñoz-Quezada, Gómez-Llorente, Gil A. “Probiotic mechanisms of action.” Ann Nutr Metab. 61(2):160-74, 2012. Web 2012 Oct 2. Accessed 2018 June 1.https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/342079. DOI: 10.1159/000342079.

Corr S C, Hill C, Gahan C G M. “Understanding the mechanisms by which probiotics inhibit gastrointestinal pathogens.” Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, Volume 56, Pages 1-15, 2009. Accessed 2018 June 1.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1043452608006013. DOI: 10.1016/S1043-4526(08)00601-3

Hemarajata P, Versalovic J. “Effects of probiotics on gut microbiota: mechanisms of intestinal immunomodulation and neuromodulation.” Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 6(1): 39–51, 2013 Jan; Accessed 2018 June 1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3539293/. DOI: 10.1177/1756283X12459294

Lebeer S, Bron P A, Marco M L, Van Pijkeren J P, O’Connell Motherway M, Hill C, Pot B, Roos S, Klaenhammer T. “Identification of probiotic effector molecules: present state and future perspectives.” Curr Opin Biotechnol.;49:217-223, 2018 Feb. Web 2017 Nov 16.Accessed 2018 June 1.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0958166917301829. DOI:10.1016/j.copbio.2017.10.007

Rao R K, Samak G. “Protection and restitution of gut barrier by probiotics: nutritional and clinical implications.” Curr Nutr Food Sci. 9(2): 99–107, 2013 May 1. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3864899/

Looking past the label

Weese J S. “Evaluation of deficiencies in labeling of commercial probiotics.” The Canadian Veterinary Journal, 44(12): 982–983, 2003 Dec. Accessed 2018 April 28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC340366/

Weese J S, Martin H. “Assessment of commercial probiotic bacterial contents and label accuracy.” The Canadian Veterinary Journal, 52(1): 43–46, 2011 Jan. Accessed 2018 April 28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3003573/

The science of prebiotics.

An overview of prebiotics

Gibson G R, Hutkins R, Sanders M E, Prescott S L, Reimer R A, Salminen S J, Scott K, Stanton C, Swanson K S, Cani P D, Verbeke K, Reid G. “Expert consensus document: The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) consensus statement on the definition and scope of prebiotics.” Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, volume 14, pages 491–502, 2017 June 14. Accessed 2018 May 28.https://www.nature.com/articles/nrgastro.2017.75. DOI: 10.1038/nrgastro.2017.75

Gibson G R, Roberfroid M B. “Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: Introducing the concept of prebiotics.” The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 125, Issue 6, Pages 1401–1412, 1995 June 1. Accessed 2018 May 28.
https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jn/125.6.1401. DOI: 10.1093/jn/125.6.1401

Van Loo J, Cummings J, Delzenne N, Englyst H, Franck A, Hopkins M, Kok N, Macfarlane G, Newton D, Quigley M, Roberfroid M, van Vliet T, van den Heuvel E. “Functional food properties of non-digestible oligosaccharides: a consensus report from the ENDO project (DGXII AIRII-CT94-1095).” Br J Nutr, 81(2):121-32. 1999 Feb. Accessed 2018 May 28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10450330

Collins S, Reid G. “Distant site effects of ingested prebiotics.” Nutrients. 8(9): 523, 2016 Sep. Web 2016 Aug 26. Accessed 2018 May 30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5037510/. DOI: 10.3390/nu8090523

Polyphenols and the microbiome

Etxeberria U, Fernández-Quintela A, Milagro F I, Aguirre L, Martínez J A, Portillo M P. “Impact of polyphenols and polyphenol-rich dietary sources on gut microbiota composition.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 61, 40, 9517-9533, 2013. Accessed 2018 May 17. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jf402506c. DOI: 10.1021/jf402506c

Cardona F, Andrés-Lacueva C, Tulipania S, Tinahones F J, Queipo-Ortuño M I.“Benefits of polyphenols on gut microbiota and implications in human health.” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Volume 24, Issue 8, Pages 1415-1422, 2013 August. Accessed 2018 May 30. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0955286313000946. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.05.001

Our Daily Synbiotic: bacteria with benefits.

Gastrointestinal function*

Del Piano M, Carmagnola S, Anderloni A, Andorno S, Ballarè M, Balzarini M, Montino F, Orsello M, Pagliarulo M, Sartori M, Tari R, Sforza F, Capurso L. “The use of probiotics in healthy volunteers with evacuation disorders and hard stools, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 2010 Sep;44 Suppl 1:S30-4. Accessed 2018 April 28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20697291 DOI:10.1097/MCG.0b013e3181ee31c3

Saggioro A. “Probiotics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 38(6 Suppl):S104-6, 2004 Jul. Accessed 2018 April 28 https://insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=15220671 DOI:10.1097/01.mcg.0000129271.98814.e2

Ogata T, Nakamura T, Anjitsu K, Yaeshima T, Takahashi S, Fukuwatari Y, Ishibashi N, Hayasawa H, Fujisawa T, Iino H. “Effect of Bifidobacterium Longum BB536 administration on the intestinal environment, defecation frequency, and fecal characteristics of human volunteers.” Bioscience Microflora Vol. 16 (2), 53-58, 1997. Accessed 2018 April 28. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bifidus1996/16/2/16_2_53/_pdf DOI:10.12938/bifidus1996.16.53

Odamaki T, Sugahara H, Yonezawa S, Yaeshima T, Iwatsuki K, Tanabe S, Tominaga T, Togashi H, Benno Y, Xiao JZ. “Effect of the oral intake of yogurt containing Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on the cell numbers of enterotoxigenic bacteroides fragilis in microbiota.” Anaerobe 18(1):14-8, 2012 Feb. Web 2011 Nov 26. Accessed 2018 April 28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22138361 DOI:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2011.11.004

Gut barrier integrity*

Lee S H. “Intestinal permeability regulation by tight junction: implication on inflammatory bowel diseases.” Intest Res 13(1): 11–18, 2015 Jan. Accessed 2018 May 17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4316216/. DOI: 10.5217/ir.2015.13.1.11

Takeda Y, Nakase H, Namba K, Inoue S, Ueno S, Uza N, Chiba T. “Upregulation of T-bet and tight junction molecules by Bifidobactrium longum improves colonic inflammation of ulcerative colitis.” Inflamm Bowel Dis.15(11):1617-8, 2009 Nov. Accessed 2018 April 28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19161180 DOI:10.1002/ibd.20861

Dermatological health*

Navarro-López V, Ramírez-Boscá A, Ramón-Vidal D, Ruzafa-Costas B, Genovés-Martínez S, Chenoll-Cuadros E, Carrión-Gutiérrez M, Horga de la Parte J, Prieto-Merino D, Codoñer-Cortés FM. “Effect of oral administration of a mixture of probiotic strains on SCORAD index and use of topical steroids in young patients with moderate atopic dermatitis: a randomized clinical trial.” JAMA Dermatol. 154(1):37-43, 2018 Jan 1. Accessed 2018 April 28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29117309 DOI:10.1001/jamadermatol.2017.3647

Manzotti G, Heffler E, Fassio F. “Probiotics as a novel adjuvant approach to atopic dermatitis.” Journal of Contemporary Immunology 1. 57-66, 2014 Sep. Accessed 2018 June 10. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265964661_Probiotics_as_a_Novel_Adjuvant_Approach_to_Atopic_Dermatitis DOI: 10.7726/jci.2014.1007

Iemoli E, Trabattoni D, Parisotto S, Borgonovo L, Toscano M, Rizzardini G, Clerici M, Ricci E, Fusi A, De Vecchi E, Piconi S, Drago L. “Probiotics reduce gut microbial translocation and improve adult atopic dermatitis.” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 46 Suppl:S33-40, 2012 Oct. Accessed 2018 April 28 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22955355 DOI: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e31826a8468

Enomoto T, Sowa M, Nishimori K, Shimazu S, Yoshida A, Yamada K, Furukawa F, Nakagawa T, Yanagisawa N, Iwabuchi N, Odamaki T, Abe F, Nakayama J, Xiao JZ. “Effects of Bifidobacterial supplementation to pregnant women and infants in the prevention of allergy development in infants and on fecal microbiota.” Allergology International, 63(4):575-85, 2014 Dec. Web 2014 Jul 25. Accessed 2018 April 28 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25056226 DOI:10.2332/allergolint.13-OA-0683

Cardiovascular health*

Costabile A, Buttarazzi I, Kolida S, Quercia S, Baldini J, Swann JR, Brigidi P, Gibson GR. “An in vivo assessment of the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum ECGC 13110402 in normal to mildly hypercholesterolaemic adults.” PLoS One. 12(12):e0187964, 2017 Dec 11. Accessed 2018 April 28. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/articleid=10.1371/journal.pone.0187964 DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0187964

Guardamagna O, Amaretti A, Puddu PE, Raimondi S, Abello F, Cagliero P, Rossi M. “Bifidobacteria supplementation: effects on plasma lipid profiles in dyslipidemic children.” Nutrition Journal 30(7-8):831-6, 2014 Jul-Aug. Web 2014 Feb 15. Accessed 2018 April 28 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24985000. DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2014.01.014

Andrade S, Borges N. Effect of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum on plasma lipids of women with normal or moderately elevated cholesterol.” Journal of Dairy Research, 76(4):469-74, 2009 Nov. Accessed 2018 April 28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19825213. DOI:10.1017/S0022029909990173

Inflammation and immune function*

Klemenak M, Dolinšek J, Langerholc T, Di Gioia D, Mičetić-Turk D. “Administration of Bifidobacterium breve decreases the production of TNF-α in children with celiac disease.” Digestive Diseases and Sciences 60(11):3386-92, 2015 Nov. Web 2015 Jul 2. Accessed 2018 April 28 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26134988 DOI: 10.1007/s10620-015-3769-7

Takeda Y, Nakase H, Namba K, Inoue S, Ueno S, Uza N, Chiba T. “Upregulation of T-bet and tight junction molecules by Bifidobacterium longum improves colonic inflammation of ulcerative colitis.” Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 15(11):1617-8, 2009 Nov. Accessed 2018 April 28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19161180 DOI: 10.1002/ibd.20861

Amaretti A, di Nunzio M, Pompei A, Raimondi S, Rossi M, Bordoni A. “Antioxidant properties of potentially probiotic bacteria: in vitro and in vivo activities.” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 97(2):809-17, 2013 Jan. Web 2012 Jul 12. Accessed 2018 April 28 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22790540 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-012-4241-7

Pregliasco F, Anselmi G, Fonte L, Giussani F, Schieppati S, Soletti L. “A new chance of preventing winter diseases by the administration of synbiotic formulations.” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 42 Suppl 3 Pt 2:S224-33, 2008 Sep. Accessed 2018 April 28 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18685511 DOI: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e31817e1c91

Manzotti G, Heffler E, Fassio F. “Multi-strain symbiotic preparations as a novel adjuvant approach to allergic rhinitis.” Journal of Contemporary Immunology 1. 67-80, 2014. Accessed 2018 April 28 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266795280_Multi-strain_Symbiotic_Preparations_as_a_Novel_Adjuvant_Approach_to_Allergic_Rhinitis DOI: 10.7726/jci.2014.1008

Drago L, De Vecchi E, Gabrieli A, De Grandi R, Toscano M. “Immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 alone and in combination, on peripheral blood mononuclear cells of allergic asthmatics.” Allergy, Asthma, Immunology Research 7(4): 409–413, 2015 Jul. Web 2015 Mar 18. Accessed 2018 April 28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4446640/ DOI:10.4168/aair.2015.7.4.409

Enomoto T, Sowa M, Nishimori K, Shimazu S, Yoshida A, Yamada K, Furukawa F, Nakagawa T, Yanagisawa N, Iwabuchi N, Odamaki T, Abe F, Nakayama J, Xiao JZ. “Effects of Bifidobacterial supplementation to pregnant women and infants in the prevention of allergy development in infants and on fecal microbiota.” Allergology International, 63(4):575-85, 2014 Dec. Web 2014 Jul 25. Accessed 2018 April 28 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25056226 DOI: 10.2332/allergolint.13-OA-0683

Xiao JZ, Kondo S, Yanagisawa N, Miyaji K, Enomoto K, Sakoda T, Iwatsuki K, Enomoto T. “Clinical efficacy of probiotic Bifidobacterium longum for the treatment of symptoms of Japanese cedar pollen allergy in subjects evaluated in an environmental exposure unit.” Allergology International, 56(1):67-75, 2007 Mar. Web 2007 Jan 29. Accessed 2018 April 28 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17259812 DOI: 10.2332/allergolint.O-06-455

Xiao JZ, Kondo S, Yanagisawa N, Miyaji K, Enomoto K, Sakoda T, Iwatsuki K, Enomoto T. “Probiotics in the treatment of Japanese cedar pollinosis: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.” Clinical and Experimental Allergy 36(11):1425-35, 2006 Nov. Accessed 2018 April 28 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17083353 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2006.02575.x

Sugahara H, Odamaki T, Fukuda S, Kato T, Xiao J, Abe F, Kikuchi J, Ohno H. “Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum alters gut luminal metabolism through modification of the gut microbial community.” Scientific Reports Volume 5, Article number: 13548, 2015. Accessed 2018 April 28 https://www.nature.com/articles/srep13548 DOI:10.1038/srep13548

Thaiss C A, Zmora N, Levy M, Elinav E. “The microbiome and innate immunity.” Nature volume 535, pages 65–74, 2016 July 7. Accessed 2018 May 17. http://www.nature.com/articles/nature18847. DOI: 10.1038/nature18847

Metabolism and energy function*

Les F, Arbonés-Mainar J M, Valero M S, López V.“Pomegranate polyphenols and Urolithin A inhibit α-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-4, lipase, triglyceride accumulation and adipogenesis related genes in 3T3-L1 adipocyte-like cells.” J Ethnopharmacol. 220:67-74, 2018 Jun 28. Web 2018 Mar 28. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29604377. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.03.029

Ryu D, Mouchiroud L, Andreux P A, Katsyuba E, Moullan N, Nicolet-Dit-Félix A A, Williams E G, Jha P, Lo Sasso G, Huzard D, Aebischer P, Sandi C, Rinsch C, Auwerx J. “Urolithin A induces mitophagy and prolongs lifespan in C. elegans and increases muscle function in rodents.” Nat Med, 22(8):879-88, 2016 Aug. Web 2016 Jul 11. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27400265. DOI: 10.1038/nm.4132

Oxidative stress*

Amaretti A, di Nunzio M, Pompei A, Raimondi S, Rossi M, Bordoni A. “Antioxidant properties of potentially probiotic bacteria: in vitro and in vivo activities.” Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 97(2):809-17, 2013 Jan. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22790540. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-012-4241-7

Folate production*

Strozzi G P, Mogna L. “Quantification of folic acid in human feces after administration of Bifidobacterium probiotic strains.” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 42 Suppl 3 Pt 2:S179-84, 2008 Sep. Accessed 2018 April 28 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18685499 DOI:10.1097/MCG.0b013e31818087d8

Sugahara H, Odamaki T, Hashikura N, Abe F, Xiao J. “Differences in folate production by Bifidobacteria of different origins.” Bioscience Microbiota Food Health 34(4): 87–93, 2015. Web 2015 Aug 5. Accessed 2018 April 28 https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bmfh/34/4/34_2015-003/_article DOI:10.12938/bmfh.2015-003

Related Work from Seed's Chief Scientist.

Selected work from our Chief Scientist, Dr. Gregor Reid

Reid G. “Probiotics: definition, scope and mechanisms of action.” Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 17-25, 2016 Feb. Web 2015 Dec 19. Accessed 2018 May 30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27048893. DOI: 10.1016/j.bpg.2015.12.001

Collins S, Reid G. “Distant Site Effects of Ingested Prebiotics.” Nutrients. 8(9): 523, 2016 Sep. Web 2016 Aug 26. Accessed 2018 May 30.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5037510/. DOI: 10.3390/nu8090523

Reid G, Younes J A, Van der Mei H C, Gloor G B, Knight R, Busscher H J. “Microbiota restoration: natural and supplemented recovery of human microbial communities.” Nature Reviews Microbiology volume 9, pages 27–38, 2011. Accessed 2018 May 30. https://www.nature.com/articles/nrmicro2473. DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro2473

Kort R, Westerik N, Serra L M, Douillard F P, Gottstein W, Mukisa I M, Tuijn C J, Basten L, Hafkamp B, Meijer W C, Teusink B, de Vos W M, Reid G, Sybesma W. “A novel consortium of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Streptococcus thermophilus for increased access to functional fermented foods.” Microbial Cell Factories 14:195, 2015 Dec 8. Accessed 2018 May 30. https://microbialcellfactories.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12934-015-0370-x#Declarations
DOI: 10.1186/s12934-015-0370-x

Urbaniak C, Reid G. “The potential influence of the microbiota and probiotics on women during long spaceflights.” Womens Health (Lond). 12(2):193-8, 2016. Web 2016 Feb 22. Accessed 2018 May 30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26901697. DOI: 10.2217/whe.15.101

Reid G, Burton J P. “Urinary incontinence: Making sense of the urinary microbiota in clinical urology.” Nature Reviews Urology volume 13, pages 567–568, 2016 Sep 26. Accessed 2018 May 30. https://www.nature.com/articles/nrurol.2016.182. DOI: 10.1038/nrurol.2016.182

Gan X T, Ettinger G, Huang C X, Burton J P, Haist J V, Rajapurohitam V, Sidaway J E, Martin G, Gloor G B, Swann J R, Reid G, Karmazyn M. “Probiotic administration attenuates myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure after myocardial infarction in the rat.” Heart Failure, 7:491-499, 2014. Accessed 2018 May 30. http://circheartfailure.ahajournals.org/content/7/3/491. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.113.000978

Bisanz J E, Enos M K, Mwanga J R, Changalucha J, Burton J P, Gloor G B, Reid G. “Randomized open-label pilot study of the influence of probiotics and the gut microbiome on toxic metal levels in Tanzanian pregnant women and school children.” mBio. 5(5): e01580-14,2014 Sep-Oct. Accessed 2018 May 30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4196227/. DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01580-14

Smits S A, Leach J, Sonnenburg E D, Gonzalez C G, Lichtman J S, Reid G, Knight R, Manjurano A, Changalucha J, Elias J E, Dominguez-Bello M G, Sonnenburg JL. “Seasonal cycling in the gut microbiome of the Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania.” Science, 357(6353):802-806, 2017 Aug 25. Accessed 2018 May 28. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/357/6353/802. DOI: 10.1126/science.aan4834

Lenoir-Wijnkoop I, Gerlier L, Roy D, Reid G. “The clinical and economic impact of probiotics consumption on respiratory tract infections: projections for Canada.” PLoS One. 11(11):e0166232, 2016 Nov 10. Accessed 2018 May 30. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0166232. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0166232

Bian G, Gloor G B, Gong A, Jia C, Zhang W, Hu J, Zhang H, Zhang Y, Zhou Z, Zhang J, Burton J P, Reid G, Xiao Y, Zeng Q, Yang K, Li J. “The gut microbiota of healthy aged chinese is similar to that of the healthy young.” mSphere. 2(5). pii: e00327-17, 2017 Sep 27. Web 2018 Sep-Oct. Accessed 2018 May 30. http://msphere.asm.org/content/2/5/e00327-17. DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00327-17

Daisley B A, Trinder M, McDowell T W, Collins S L, Sumarah M W, Reid G. “Microbiota-mediated modulation of organophosphate insecticide toxicity by species-dependent lactobacilli interactions in a Drosophila melanogaster insect model.” Appl Environ Microbiol. 84(9). pii: e02820-17. 2018 May 1. Web 2018 Apr 16. Accessed 2018 May 30. http://aem.asm.org/content/early/2018/02/19/AEM.02820-17.abstract. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.02820-17

The future of microbiome science.

The gut-brain axis; interconnectedness between the microbiome and the brain

Goyal M S, Venkatesh S, Milbrandt J, Gordon J I, Raichle M E. “Feeding the brain and nurturing the mind: linking nutrition and the gut microbiota to brain development.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences US 112(46):14105-12, 2015 Nov 17. Accessed 2018 April 28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26578751 DOI:10.1073/pnas.1511465112

Luna R A, Foster J A. “Gut brain axis: diet microbiota interactions and implications for modulation of anxiety and depression.” Current Opinion in Biotechnology 3 2:35-41, 2015 April. Web 2014 Nov 21. Accessed 2018 April 28.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25448230 DOI:10.1016/j.copbio.2014.10.007

Mayer E A, Tillisch K, Gupta A. “Gut/brain axis and the microbiota.” The Journal of Clinical Investigation 125(3):926-38, 2015 Mar 2. Web 2015 Feb 17. Accessed 2018 April 28 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25689247 DOI:10.1172/JCI76304

Mu C, Yang Y, Zhu W. “Gut microbiota: the brain peacekeeper.” Frontiers in Microbiology, 7:345, 2016 Mar 17. Accessed 2018 April 28 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27014255 DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2016.00345

Collins S M, Surette M, Bercik P. “The interplay between the intestinal microbiota and the brain.” Nature Reviews Microbiology (11):735-42, 2012 Nov 10. Web 2012 Sep 24. Accessed 2018 April 28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23000955 DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro2876

Zhou L, Foster J A. “Psychobiotics and the gut–brain axis: in the pursuit of happiness.” Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 11: 715–723. 2015. Accessed 2018 May 17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4370913/. DOI: 10.2147/NDT.S61997

Strati F, Cavalieri D, Albanese D, De Felice C, Donati C, Hayek J, Jousson O, Leoncini S, Renzi D, Calabrò A, De Filippo C. “New evidences on the altered gut microbiota in autism spectrum disorders.” Microbiome 5(1):24, 2017 Feb 22. Accessed 2018 May 28. https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40168-017-0242-1. DOI:10.1186/s40168-017-0242-1

The microbiome and cancer research

Avilés-Jiménez F, Yu G, Torres-Poveda K, Madrid-Marina V, Torres J. “On the search to elucidate the role of microbiota in the genesis of cancer: the cases of gastrointestinal and cervical cancer.” Arch Med Res. 48(8):754-765. 2017 Nov. Web 2017 Dec 6.Accessed 2018 June 1. https://www.arcmedres.com/article/S0188-4409(17)30237-0/fulltext. DOI: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2017.11.008

García-Castillo​ V, Sanhueza E, McNerney E, Onate S A​, García A. “Microbiota dysbiosis: a new piece in the understanding of carcinogenesis puzzle.”Journal of Medical Microbiology 65(12), October 2016. Accessed 2018 June 1. http://jmm.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000371. DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.000371

Wong S H, Kwong T N Y, Wu C Y, Yu J. “Clinical applications of gut microbiota in cancer biology.” Semin Cancer Biol. pii: S1044-579X(18)30026-9, 2018 May 18. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1044579X18300269?via%3Dihub. DOI: 10.1016/j.semcancer.2018.05.003

Kaiser J. “Gut microbes shape response to cancer immunotherapy.” Science. 3;358(6363):573, 2017 Nov. Accessed 2018 June 1. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/358/6363/573.long. doi: 10.1126/science.358.6363.573

Gagnière J, Raisch J, Veziant J, Barnich N, Bonnet R, Buc R, Bringer M, Pezet D, Bonnet M. “Gut microbiota imbalance and colorectal cancer.” World J Gastroenterol. 22(2): 501–518, 2016 Jan 14. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4716055/. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i2.501

Plant microbiome (plants have microbiomes, too!)

Thijs S, Sillen W, Weyens N, Vangronsveld J. “Phytoremediation: state-of-the-art and a key role for the plant microbiome in future trends and research prospects.” Int J Phytoremediation, 19(1):23-38 2017 Jan 2. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27484694

Castaneda-Alvarez C, Aballay E. “Rhizobacteria with nematicide aptitude: enzymes and compounds associated.” World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 32(12):203, 2016 Dec. Web 2016 Nov 1. Accessed 2018 June 1. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11274-016-2165-6

Soil microbiome (soil has a microbiome, too!)

Nie M, Bell C, Wallenstein M D, Pendall, E. “Increased plant productivity and decreased microbial respiratory C loss by plant growth-promoting Rhizobacteria under elevated CO2.” Scientific Reports volume 5, Article number: 9212, 2015 March. Accessed 2018 May 31. https://www.nature.com/articles/srep09212. DOI: 10.1038/srep09212

Ochoa-Hueso, R. “Global change and the soil microbiome: a human-health perspective.” Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 2017 July 6. Accessed 2018 May 31.https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fevo.2017.00071/full. DOI: 10.3389/fevo.2017.00071

Other things we think about.

The redefinition of health

Huber M, Knottnerus J A, Green L W, der Horst H E, Jadad A, Kromhout D, Leonard B, Lorig K, Loureiro M I, van der Meer J W M, Schnabel P, Smith R, van Weel C, Smid H. “How should we define health?” BMJ 343:d4163, 2011 July 26. Accessed 2018 May 30. https://www.bmj.com/content/343/bmj.d4163.full. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.d4163

McClintocka M K, Daleb W, Laumannc E O, Waitec L. “Empirical redefinition of comprehensive health and well-being in the older adults of the United States.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 113(22):E3071-80, 2016 May 31. Web 2016 May 16. Accessed 2018 May 31. http://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/113/22/E3071.full.pdf. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1514968113

Rovesti M, Fioranelli M, Petrelli P, Satolli F, Roccia M G, Gianfaldoni S, Tchernev G, Wollina U, Lotti J, Feliciani C, Lotti T. “Health and illness in history, science and society.” Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 6(1): 163–165, 2018 Jan 25. Web 2018 Jan 20. Accessed 2018 May 31. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5816293/. DOI: 10.3889/oamjms.2018.056

Saracci R. “The world health organisation needs to reconsider its definition of health.” BMJ 314:1409, 1997 May 10. Accessed 2018 May 31. https://www.bmj.com/content/314/7091/1409.long. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.314.7091.1409

Curiosity is rewarded—
Free knowledge for your world within.
Wonderful. We'll be in touch.
Female (XX) or Male (XY)?